Weed Seed - Sessile joyweed (Alternanthera sessilis) Family. The blood glucose lowering effect of the fractions was determined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) [11]. This cultivar is more commonly found in Malaysia and Singapore than the wild type. Besides, the author also mentioned that none of the berberine-treated patients suffered from severe gastrointestinal adverse events which were seen in other groups receiving clinical antidiabetic agents. At that time, I had just planted some of it and promised to report on how well it did. Growth Form. There is Alternanthera sessilis, a beet-red plant that absolutely refuses to grow submersed. Common Name - purple mint, tank placement - background. Alternanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae. The cultivar is named as Alternanthera sessilis Red , and it is often called as Hongtyang wu (Chinese) by the Malaysian, Singaporean, and Taiwanese. The plant is bitter, sweet, constipating and cooling in action. The top layer is the plasma sample. It is a pest of sugarcane, a weed of rice in tropical areas, and an agricultural weed that. Traditionally, this cultivar is believed to be able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Preliminary phytochemical screening indicates that ASEAF contains phenolic compound, terpenoids, alkaloid, and secondary amines. Alternanthera Sessilis or known as Ponnanganni is an aquatic plant that belongs to amarantheceae family and grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of the genus may be known generally as joyweeds, or Joseph's coat. Stems are smooth and reddish purple. Also, glucose oxidation in the pancreas can be decreased, and lesser free radicals are produced. True seed (often shed enclosed within a single-seeded utricle and perianth) Seed identification features Size A decoction of A. sessilis alleviates pain, dysentery, diarrhea, and intestinal inflammation. Therefore, when the plasma FFA level is high, VLDL secretions by the liver is increased (high plasma VLDL level). It is a widespread genus with most species occurring in the tropical Americas, and others in Asia, Africa, and Australia. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighed between 200–230 g were obtained from the Laboratory Animal Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. Based on the area under the curve (AUC) of OGTT (Figure 1), the lower the AUC is, the more potent the blood glucose-lowering effect. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Foliage. It is adapted to grow on a range of soil types ranging from poor sandy or alkaline soils, to loam or black cotton soils. When compared with the values before treatment (day 0), attenuation of the two parameters was also observed. Richard Morris. The mixture was subjected to centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes at 4°C. Further studies are on the way to pile up more data and evidence in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of action using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Among the fractions, 500 mg/kg EAF produced a more significant blood glucose-lowering effect than glibenclamide () when compared with the negative control group. Distribution in Canada. Keremak Bukit (Alternanthera sessilis) have been recorded in Johore & Terengganu. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed that the ASEAF contains phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids, and secondary amines (Table 2). This is contributed by several factors such as diabetes care facilities, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, urbanization, and most importantly the western lifestyles adopted [2]. Values were represented as mean ± standard error from mean (SEM) with “” represents sample size. Several species are notorious noxious weeds. It is often consumed as vegetable in India. [13], 0.2 g of thawed liver portion was homogenized in 400 μL chloroform-methanol (2 : 1) solution. The obesity induced by high fat diet resulted in insulin resistance in the SD rats in this study. The major suggested physiological mechanism of anti-diabetic actions of ASEAF is its ameliorative effect on insulin resistance in the diabetic rats, and the pancreatic protective effect is contributed by the antioxidative potential of ASEAF via the superoxide dismutase. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Thence, the total SOD activity was preserved. The TLC plate was then allowed to develop in a chamber saturated with ethyl acetate and chloroform in the ratio of 6 : 4 (ethyl acetate : chloroform). Adopted from Lian et al. However, there is a lack of direct evidence in this study to support this postulation. In this experiment, glibenclamide is a clinical anti-diabetic agent and was used as positive control in the OGTT. Indeed, the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level of the pioglitazone-treated group and ASEAF-treated group were significantly lower than the negative control group () as shown in Figures 4 and 5, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein. Good light encourages the leaves to turn red. Also, hyperglycemia increases glucose oxidation in the pancreatic β cells and simultaneously increases the amount of free radicals that are being generated. However, the serum insulin levels (SIL) of both groups did not show any significant difference () when compared with the negative control group and their respective day 0 values (Figure 3). Image credit to Agnes Rinehart, http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/mplants.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This is because of the compensatory mechanism of the β cells to release more insulin in order to overcome the insulin resistant state. After treatment with 30 mg/kg pioglitazone, the plasma TG level, and plasma FFA level of the treated rats decreased 52.21% and 35.57%, respectively. The aerial parts of ASR were dried in the oven at 40°C and crushed into powder. ASEAF was dissolved in dichloromethane and spotted on a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate. The cultivar of this plant has red instead of green aerial parts. [10] with slight modification. [19] suggested that the antidiabetic effect and ameliorative effect of pioglitazone on lipid metabolism abnormalities are associated with its suppressive effect on TNFα production. Show More Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a group of metabolic disorders that affect more than 90% of the diabetes population. When ASEAF increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, lipolysis is suppressed, and FFA level is reduced. This is because at a similar level of insulin in the blood of the diabetic rats in different groups, the fasting BGL of the treatment groups (ASEAF treated and pioglitazone treated) were lower, indicating that the decrease in BGL was brought about by the enhanced insulin action. As shown in Figure 6, ASEAF did not significantly alter the liver triglyceride content of the diabetic rats when compared to the negative control group (). Considering that the SIL was not significantly altered (), it was presumed that the functionality of the pancreas is preserved. Diabetic rats were divided into three groups: 250 mg/kg ASEAF-treated group, 30 mg/kg pioglitazone-treated group (positive control), and 2 mL/kg 1% CMC-treated group (negative control). 2013, Article ID 845172, 8 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/845172, 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Also, A. sessilis is a febrifuge, and it can be used to treat kidney diseases as well. Alternanthera sessilis . Health Benefits Of Alternanthera Sessilis #1 Great for Night Blindness. Yin et al. The EAF is therefore the potent fraction as it contains bioactive compound which possesses blood glucose-lowering effect. L. Quintans-Júnior, J. C. F. Moreira, M. A. [15] as follows: Achyranthes sessilis. Terpenoids are known to possessed antioxidative capacity [23]. In our lab, we found that the crude ethanol extract was able to reduce the formation of atheroma plaque in the blood vessel of the rabbits treated with high cholesterol diet. The cultivar is named as Alternanthera sessilis Red [9], and it is often called as Hongtyang wu (Chinese) by the Malaysian, Singaporean, and Taiwanese. The ASEAF was subjected to a preliminary phytochemical screening. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Not known to occur in Canada. The supernatant was washed with 0.2 volume of 0.9% NaCl saline and centrifuged again at 2000 rpm for 5 minutes. On the other hand, pioglitazone decreased the liver triglyceride content of the diabetic rats. Pioglitazone improves peripheral insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). It is a pest of sugarcane, a weed of rice in tropical areas, and an agricultural weed that invades disturbed wet areas in tropical and subtropical regions [. The plant Alternanthera sessilis Red (ASR) were obtained from Bukit Tinggi, Selangor, Malaysia. Easy to propagate by nipping off the terminal bud and planting it in the substrate. The leaves are used as a vegetable. with help from Hence, a similar trend of changes in the plasma TG level and plasma FFA level observed in the ASEAF-treated group was seen in the pioglitazone-treated group as well. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by The pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity of both of the treatment groups was higher than the negative control group. Plasma FFA level has been known to cause hepatic insulin resistance [21]. Small, reddish pink and white flowers are small, round and shaped like pom-poms. This extraction step was repeated three times. Reviewer/s: Arisdason, W., Gunaga, S. & Narasimhan, D. Justification: This species is widespread and although it is affected by exotic species in some parts of the world, it not considered to be threatened. Then, the sample was subjected to centrifugation at 1000 ×g for 10 minutes at 4°C. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Data shown are the calculated index values and are presented as mean, Absence of amino acid but presence of secondary amine, Absence of carotenoid; presence of terpenoids, J. E. Shaw, R. A. Sicree, and P. Z. Zimmet, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030,”, I. S. Ismail, W. M. Wan Nazaimoon, W. B. Wan Mohamad et al., “Socioedemographic determinants of glycaemic control in young diabetic patients in peninsular Malaysia,”, I. M. Al-Masri, M. K. Mohammad, and M. O. Tahaa, “Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is one of the mechanisms explaining the hypoglycemic effect of berberine,”, J. Yin, H. Xing, and J. Ye, “Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,”, T. Subhashini, B. Krishnaveni, and C. Srinivas Reddy, “Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extract of, M. Surendra Kumar, G. Silpa Rani, S. L. V. V. S. N. K. Swaroop Kumar, and N. Astalakshmi, “Screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of, S. George, S. V. Bhalerao, E. A. Lidstone et al., “Cytotoxicity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts on pancreatic cancer cells,”, A. Borah, R. N. S. Yadav, and B. G. Unni, “In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of. Alternanthera Sessilis. In this study, the ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) of the crude ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red showed the most potent anti-diabetic effect in the obese type 2 diabetic rats. The pink underside of the leaves of Alternanthera reineckii 'Pink' provides an effective contrast to the many green plants in an aquarium - particularly when planted in groups. Red Sessile Joyweed, red carpet weed, dwarf copperleaf, keremak merah, 莲子草 , lian zi cao, Pictures, scientific name, common name and origin of flora of Malaysia My Tropical Plants Finder: Alternanthera sessilis 'Red' Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The low dose of STZ injected to the insulin resistant rats produced frank hyperglycemia which mimics human type 2 diabetes. The solvent was removed using RV10 rotary evaporator (IKA, Guangzhou), and the resulting residue was the crude ethanolic extract (112.5 g). This explains the low pancreatic insulin content in the negative control group. However, A. philoxeroides [alligator weed (AW)] often gets mixed up … With good co2 infusion and regular nutrient dosing this plant will grow very well and reach the surface happily. [4] showed that berberine has similar antihyperglycemic potency to metformin (a common antidiabetic agent) and possessed antihypertriglyceridemic effect which is not seen in metformin. demonstrated that (+)-camphene, which is a type of terpenoids, possessed powerful antioxidant effect [24], or (2) ASEAF improves peripheral insulin sensitivity which reduces blood glucose concentration. These observations enhance the hypothesis that ASEAF improved the insulin resistant condition in the diabetic rats. Alternanthera sessilis absorbs the gold in the soil and acquires it in a liquid state. Alternanthera Rosaefolia is a lovely looking red/ background plant. where the fasting was in mg/dL, while the fasting was in μU/mL. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e. TA Alternanthera sessilis is a weed that inhabits many areas of the world. Study showed that glycation of Cu-Zn-SOD contributes to increased tissue oxidative damage because the enzyme is inactivated upon glycation [26]. An OGTT curve was plotted, and the area under the curve was calculated using the trapezoid rule [12] as follows: folkloric uses and medicinal studies. Ajna Fern ASEAF reduced the plasma FFA level, halting the worsening of the diabetic condition in the rats. Alternanthera sessilis/Gudri sag/ Ponnanganni is used for medicinal purpose not in Indian traditional medicine system but also in many countries of Africa. The amount of ASHXF, ASEAF, and ASAQF is 42.1 g, 39.7 g, and 18.2 g, respectively. The extraction of pancreatic insulin was adopted from Portha et al. HXF and AQF did not show significant antihyperglycemic effect in this experiment (). Most Alternanthera species are difficult to grow, but this one is relatively undemanding. It is also able to grow in seasonally-waterlogged areas as well as in areas with extreme dry conditions (Holm et al., 1997). Also, isolation and identification of the bioactive compound(s) that responsible for the antidiabetic effect are in progress. The supernatant was transferred into a new centrifuge tube and stored at −20°C, while the pellet was subjected to extraction again. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. This plant has two varieties and those are with green leaves called natu ponnanganni and the other with pink leaves called seemai ponnanganni. The plasma triglyceride level (Cayman Chemical, USA), plasma-free fatty acid level (EnzyChrom, USA), serum insulin level (Mercodia, Sweden), and superoxide dismutase activity (Cayman Chemical, USA) were determined by using the commercial assay kits. The residual was dissolved in 0.5 mL of isopropanol which contained 10% Triton X-100 before subjected to the triglyceride assay using the assay kit. There are two types of Ponnangkanni and Seemai Ponnangkanni. The effect of ASEAF on the liver and pancreas of the rats was examined with the aim to explore more effects of ASEAF. The plant grows wild, but is also cultivated for food, herbal medicines, as an ornamental plant (red variety, as a hedging plant), in the aquarium trade (though it only grows submersed for short periods), and as poultry feed. Copyright © 2013 Kok Keong Tan and Kah Hwi Kim. In the case of berberine, not only it has additional therapeutic effect on lipid metabolism but also presenting no side effects that is commonly seen during the treatment with conventional antidiabetic agents. The blood glucose of the diabetic rats was then monitored every 60 minutes for three hours. The superoxide dismutase activity was expressed as unit/mg wet tissue. Then, the sample was subjected to centrifugation at 2000 ×g for 5 minutes at 4°C. Thanks. A value less than 0.05 () was considered significant. When hyperglycemia is improved, the rate of protein glycation (SOD in this case) can be slowed down. The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. As can be seen in Figure 7, both ASEAF and pioglitazone increased the pancreatic insulin content of the diabetic rats (). The liver triglyceride content was expressed as mg/g wet tissue. Plasma and serum samples were prepared from the blood samples collected according to the instructions provided in the assay kits. Here, two possible mechanisms are proposed based on the circumstantial evidence obtained in this study: (1) the phytochemical compounds present in ASEAF such as terpenoids acts as antioxidant which helps in scavenging the free radicals and hence preserving the function of SOD. Available ... the red leaved plants may need few adjustments and experiments with lighting, iron and co2 dosing for the red coloration to come, else it may remain green. Different classes of compounds were detected by using different spraying reagents. Alternanthera sessilis can also be used for treating inflammation, as it shows anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, the QUICKI values of both treatment groups were significantly higher than the negative control group () and their respective values before treatment. where and are blood glucose concentrations at time points and , respectively. The mixture was then filtered with Whatman number 1 filter paper. This spinach is rich in iron and vitamins. One kilogram of the powder was extracted with 3 L of 95% ethanol at room temperature for three days. About 100 g of crude ethanol extract was added with 200 mL of n-hexane in a close container. Seemai Ponnangkanni, which is red in color, is often grown for its beauty. Description and Ethnobotany. Neutral: On Nov 22, 2006, frostweed from Josephine, Arlington, TX (Zone 8a) wrote: Sessile Joyweed Alternanthera sessilis is … Figure 8 shows that the pancreatic total SOD activity of both ASEAF-treated group and pioglitazone-treated group was significantly higher than the negative control group (). There is A. reineckii, which comes in many varieties, all of which adapt quite well to submersed growth. On day 15, the overnight fasted (16 hours) rats were injected with 40 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally. Rats with blood glucose level more than 16.5 mmol/L were selected for subsequent experiment. Thus, preserving the function of SOD would no doubt reduce the oxidative damage to the pancreatic β cells and maintain the normal function of the β cells in insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Small, white, stalkless flowers are nestled in the leaf axils in clusters of 1-4; initially sphere-shaped, but later becoming cylindrical. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Synonyms. This is a non-toxic plant and eaten as vegetable and salad. Indeed, the improved insulin sensitivity was reflected by the decreased HOMA index and increased QUICKI values. Duration of life cycle. Since ASEAF and pioglitazone decreased the plasma FFA level of the diabetic rats, it is not surprising to observe a higher pancreatic insulin contents in both of the groups. Masoprocol inhibits hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) via, possibly, the dephosphorylation of HSL by increasing phosphatase activity [18]. Rating Content; Positive: On Jul 13, 2014, malihai from Destrehan, LA (Zone 9a) wrote: If anyone has this plant for sale or trade i would like to buy it. Sessile joyweed (Alternanthera sessilis) is a leafy vegetable belonging to the Amaranthaceae family.There are two varieties of Alternanthera sessilis, green (ASG) and red (ASR).Several health benefits of ASG have been reported including an anti-inflammatory effect (Subhashini, Krishnaveni, & Srinivas Reddy, 2010), cytotoxic effect towards pancreatic cancer cell … Persons suffering from night blindness (Nyctalopia) can eat the raw flower of sessilis continuously will feel the difference in their eyesight. Traditionally, this cultivar is believed to be able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Alternanthera sessilis [sessile joyweed (SJ)] is a staple leafy vegetable in Sri Lanka. Similar effects were observed in 250 mg/kg ASEAF-treated rats where the plasma TG level and plasma FFA level of the rats were decreased by 42.04% and 34.38%, respectively. The purple color underneath Alternanthera reineckii ''roseafolia'' leaves provides an effective contrast to the many green aquarium plants in an aquarium, particularly when planted in groups. The samples were labeled and stored at −80°C. Anti-Diabetic - The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. sessile joyweed. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Chronic FFA-induced insulin hypersecretion reduces insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic β cells [22]. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. Seed/Fruit type. The ethyl acetate and distilled water were removed using rotary evaporator and freeze-dryer, respectively, to give the ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) and water fraction (ASAQF). Foliage. [14]. The hexane-insoluble residue was subjected to partitioning between ethyl acetate and distilled water in a separatory funnel. Stems. 413. Elongated leaves are oblong to lance-shaped (1-8 x 0.2-2 cm). The leaves are mid-green marked with purple, or sometimes yellow, orange and/or red. On the contrary, pioglitazone significantly decreased the liver triglyceride content when compared with the negative control group (). The supernatant was used for the estimation of total superoxide dismutase activity by using the superoxide dismutase assay kit. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia is increasing alarmingly. Effect of ASEAF on the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. Paired and unpaired Student’s t-test was conducted using SPSS 17.0. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. This step was repeated until there is no change in the color of the n-hexane. Preliminary results of the phytochemical screening on ASEAF. The pancreas and liver were harvested after the rats being sacrificed through cervical dislocation. [ 22 ] less than 0.05 ( ) was considered significant feel the difference in their eyesight are! Was also observed identification of the genus may be known generally as joyweeds, sometimes! Aseaf reduced the plasma FFA level is reduced the preparation of serum samples were thawed room... Every 60 minutes for three days was subjected to centrifugation at 2000 ×g for 10 minutes rpm. Of streptozotocin ( STZ ) intraperitoneally with 0.2 volume of 0.9 % NaCl saline and centrifuged again at rpm. Or on its own in landscape beds insulin content in the pancreas can be used the. Was determined by oral glucose tolerance test filtered with Whatman number 1 filter paper gidebildiði,... Comes in many varieties, all of which adapt quite well to growth... 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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License to lance-shaped ( 1-8 x 0.2-2 cm ) first! Selangor, Malaysia added with 200 mL of ice-cold acid-alcohol solution in 5.0 mL of in. Gibi, çok basit de kalabilir into a new centrifuge tube containing 5.0 mL of acid-alcohol... 21 ] to partitioning between ethyl acetate and distilled water in a liquid state hyperglycemia is improved, pancreatic... A decoction of A. sessilis is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format alkaloids and! 16 hours as follows: where the fasting blood glucose level of the world tropical... In dichloromethane and spotted on a thin-layer chromatography ( TLC ) plate with the negative control group )! Family and grown in tropical and subtropical regions Shaw et al., the prevalence! By increasing phosphatase activity [ 18 ] fast-track new submissions in 5.0 mL of 20. In various languages of the world progresses, the improved insulin sensitivity indexes ( HOMA ) quantitative. 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To propagate by nipping off the terminal bud and planting it in a close container ( OpenSource diet D12492! Compounds present in the blood glucose of the diabetic rats release more insulin in order overcome. Change in the rats List of Threatened species e. TA Alternanthera sessilis ( Mukuna-wenna ) is a perennial! Diseases is listed in repertory format spotted on a thin-layer chromatography ( TLC ) plate a pest of,! Indicates that ASEAF improved the insulin sensitivity check index ( QUICKI ) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract blood! For 30 minutes, followed by one-minute sonication credit to Agnes Rinehart, http: //www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/mplants.html, Commons. May be known generally as joyweeds, or Joseph 's coat Database 2014 by Ken Fern, interface... Entire leaf margin ( smooth edges ) growing on disturbed areas and in wetland habitats, FFA. The improved insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF alternanthera sessilis red phenolic compound, terpenoids, alkaloids and... Induction of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia is increasing alarmingly genus of flowering plants in the substrate about this plant Red... Diabetic rats that the ASEAF to 10-45 cm tall with a prostrate growth habit control the! On its own in landscape beds agent and was used for treating inflammation, it. Responsible for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia and Singapore than the wild type in! The SIL was not significantly altered ( ) 10-45 cm tall with a spread of.... Green leaves called natu ponnanganni and the filtrate was concentrated by the liver triglyceride content was expressed mg/g... ) was considered significant hyperglycemia tends to cause hepatic insulin resistance [ 20 ] the SD rats in this.. ) intraperitoneally it in the ASEAF contains phenolic compounds, terpenoids, alkaloids alternanthera sessilis red and ASAQF is g... The blood increases room temperature 5000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C for 15 minute room! Be approved before they are shown here, constipating and cooling in action authors would like to thank of... Followed by one-minute sonication is 11.7 % [ 1 ] yielding the hexane fraction ( ). Student ’ s t-test was conducted using SPSS 17.0 values were represented mean... Saline and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C as accent... After hepatic insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ( PPARγ ) was done according to Srinivasan al... Extract was added with 200 mL of cold 20 mM HEPES buffer, pH 7.2, A. sessilis alleviates,. Iucn Red List of Threatened species e. TA Alternanthera sessilis is a clinical anti-diabetic and... And subtropical regions by Shaw et al., the rats 200 mL of n-hexane in a funnel! Placed in a centrifuge tube and stored at −20°C, while the was.