[162][f] Corbridge concludes that British policies towards of India's numerous princely sovereign states, as well as enumeration of the population into rigid categories during the 10-year census, particularly with the 1901 and 1911 census, contributed towards the hardening of caste identities. Regional Determinism India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as Inheritors of Empire", "The prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg's Account of Hinduism", "Early Sanskritization. Supporting evidence for the existence of varna and jati systems in medieval India has been elusive, and contradicting evidence has emerged. Here is a summary of the extensive research conducted by Shri Bijani. ORIGIN OF THE NAME The province of Sindh has been designated after the river Sindh (Indus) which literally created it and has been also its sole means of sustenance. [81] Olivelle adds that the overwhelming focus in matters relating to purity/impurity in the Dharma-sastra texts concerns "individuals irrespective of their varna affiliation" and all four varnas could attain purity or impurity by the content of their character, ethical intent, actions, innocence or ignorance (acts by children), stipulations, and ritualistic behaviours. Instead, economic reforms since the 1990s and resultant opportunities for non-agricultural jobs have reduced poverty and increased per capita income for all segments of Indian society. Gorgage. "[d] According to Dirks, before colonial rule caste affiliation was quite loose and fluid, but colonial rule enforced caste affiliation rigorously, and constructed a much more strict hierarchy than existed previously, with some castes being criminalised and others being given preferential treatment. Some of their sub-castes are Gajria, Kajria, Parmal etc. ", "Development of Scheduled Castes in India – A Review", "Life Expectancy at Birth Among Social and Economic Groups in India", "Dialogue between Hindus and the St. Thomas Christians", "Pakistan NGO tackles demeaning low-caste word for 'Christians, "The Scheduled Castes in the Sikh Community – A Historical Perspective", "Changes in Mahatma Gandhi's views on caste and intermarriage", "Visual history tells us about repressed histories", "Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis, and Development", "Improving land access to India's rural poor", "Improving the Rural Poors' Acces tp Land in India", "The Elephant That Became a Tiger, 20 Years of Economic Reform in India", "The Impact of Positive Discrimination in Education in India: Evidence from a Natural Experiment", https://casi.sas.upenn.edu/iit/bharathi-malghan-rahman, "Hindu cosmology and the orinetation and segregation of social groups in villages in Northwestern India", "Rural Settlement types in the Uttar Pradesh (United Provinces of Agra and Oudh)", https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-miscellaneous/tp-others/race-and-caste/article27921114.ece, "The God of Small Things Study Guide | GradeSaver", "Obscenity case slammed against Arundhati Roy", "Religious vs. THERE WAS A UNIQUE CASTE SYSTEM OF SINDHIS. 33 of 1989", "SC/STs fail to break caste ceiling: No SC in 149 top government officers, 40 pc do menial jobs", "Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population: Census 2001". He proclaimed complete dissolution of all the four varnas and called it obsolete. It is referred to frequently in the ancient Indian texts. MASANDS – Masands were appointed to spread Sikhism by the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. The contestations of the period are also evident from the texts describing dialogues of Buddha with the Brahmins. As Sindhi anti-caste scholar Ghulam Hussain, who has contributed ground-breaking work on caste relations in Sindh, notes, Sayedism and Brahminism are infused with each other. We have tried to enumerate some of the better known types in this article. It would be possible to find one Amil brother and one Bhaiband brother in the same household. [207], A 2003 article in The Telegraph claimed that inter-caste marriage and dating were common in urban India. In Group A and B jobs, the percentage of positions held by lowest caste classified people is 30% lower than their demographic percentage. [1][152][153][154], The strict British class system may have influenced the British preoccupation with the Indian caste system as well as the British perception of pre-colonial Indian castes. [138] Bayly states that these obscure post-Mughal elites associated themselves with kings, priests and ascetics, deploying the symbols of caste and kinship to divide their populace and consolidate their power. This description is questioned by Bharadvaja who says that colors are seen among all the varnas, that desire, anger, fear, greed, grief, anxiety, hunger and toil prevails over all human beings, that bile and blood flow from all human bodies, so what distinguishes the varnas, he asks. Balochi Caste Name. [295][better source needed] Thomas claimed the alleged obscenity in the last chapter deeply hurts the Syrian Christian community, the basis of the novel. Later Vedic texts ridicule some professions, but the concept of untouchability is not found in them. Indian Sindhis are predominantly Hindu, while Pakistani Sindhis are predominantly Muslim. Goraya. Better terms would be ethnicity, ethnic identity and ethnic group. As a result, there have been campaigns to include the Muslim untouchable and lower castes among the groups eligible for affirmative action in India under SC and STs provision act [234] and have been given additional reservation based on the Sachar Committee report. Today, ethnic Sindhis are both in India and Pakistan. [162] The caste system became legally rigid during the Raj, when the British started to enumerate castes during their ten-year census and meticulously codified the system. BHATIAS – Bhatias are descendants of Shri Krishna. The Dalits, also known as the scheduled caste or untouchables, have experienced consistent … The Vedic tribes regarded themselves as arya (the noble ones) and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani. [257] Malik states that the lack of religious sanction makes qaum a quasi-caste, and something that is found in Islam outside South Asia. [148] The 1891 census included 60 sub-groups each subdivided into six occupational and racial categories, and the number increased in subsequent censuses. They propose education, economic development, mobility and more interaction between youth as possible reasons for these exogamous marriages. ... Syrian Christian community operates very much as a caste and is properly regarded as a caste or at least a very caste-like group. This theory discards the Indo-Aryan varna model as the basis of caste, and is centred on the ritual power of the king, who was "supported by a group of ritual and magical specialists of low social status," with their ritual occupations being considered 'polluted'. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it is derived from the Portuguese casta, meaning "race, lineage, breed" and, originally, "'pure or unmixed (stock or breed)". [180][182], Khushwant Singh a Sikh historian, and Tony Ballantyne a professor of History, state that these colonial-era laws helped create and erect barriers within land-owning and landless castes in northwest India. The first school has focused on religious anthropology and disregarded other historical evidence as secondary to or derivative of this tradition. [226] Of the one billion Hindus in India, it is estimated that Hindu Forward caste comprises 26%, Other Backward Class comprises 43%, Hindu Scheduled Castes (Dalits) comprises 22% and Hindu Scheduled Tribes (Adivasis) comprises 9%. Many occupations listed such as accounting and writing were not linked to jatis. [135], Susan Bayly, an anthropologist, notes that "caste is not and never has been a fixed fact of Indian life" and the caste system as we know it today, as a "ritualised scheme of social stratification," developed in two stages during the post-Mughal period, in 18th and early 19th century. 113. [175][176][177] This practice became controversial, did not enjoy the support of all British colonial officials, and in a few cases this decades-long practice was reversed at the start of the 20th century with the proclamation that people "could not be incarcerated indefinitely on the presumption of [inherited] bad character". [137], With the Islamic Mughal empire falling apart in the 18th century, regional post-Mughal ruling elites and new dynasties from diverse religious, geographical and linguistic background attempted to assert their power in different parts of India. The gahapatis were the primary taxpayers of the state. Judged by the standards being applied to India, Gandhi claimed, every human society would fail. [1][2][3][4] It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. [167], The British colonial government, for instance, enacted the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871. [200], Societal stratification, and the inequality that comes with it, still exists in India,[201][202] and has been thoroughly criticised. [271][original research? [117][118][119], For northern Indian region, Susan Bayly writes, "until well into the colonial period, much of the subcontinent was still populated by people for whom the formal distinctions of caste were of only limited importance; Even in parts of the so-called Hindu heartland of Gangetic upper India, the institutions and beliefs which are now often described as the elements of traditional caste were only just taking shape as recently as the early eighteenth century—that is the period of collapse of Mughal period and the expansion of western power in the subcontinent. [citation needed] He believed that the caste system originated in the practise of endogamy and that it spread through imitation by other groups. These people were into trading and business activities in the kingdom of the Mirs. [254], Some assert that the Muslim castes are not as acute in their discrimination as those of the Hindus,[258] while critics of Islam assert that the discrimination in South Asian Muslim society is worse. [215][216], The Government of the United Kingdom ran a public consultation on ways to ensure legal protection against caste discrimination from March 2017 to September 2017. He acknowledged that the caste system in India spiritually blinded some Indians, then added that this did not mean that every Indian or even most Indians blindly followed the caste system, or everything from ancient Indian scriptures of doubtful authenticity and value. In: Leach, ER (ed.) I must admit the first time I came across this question I was very confused; because I’d been taught that caste was a marker of the Hindu religion, and as Muslims we had thrown off the shackles of the rigid caste system. [123][124], Derryl MacLein, a professor of social history and Islamic studies, states that historical evidence does not support this theory, whatever evidence is available suggests that Muslim institutions in north-west India legitimised and continued any inequalities that existed, and that neither Buddhists nor "lower caste" Hindus converted to Islam because they viewed Islam to lack a caste system. They strictly married in their own community. It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. Gandhi went on a hunger strike against this provision claiming that such an arrangement would split the Hindu community into two groups. [104], The Mahabharata, whose final version is estimated to have been completed by the end of the fourth century, discusses the varna system in section 12.181, presenting two models. Olivelle writes in his review of post-Vedic Sutra and Shastra texts, "we see no instance when a term of pure/impure is used with reference to a group of individuals or a varna or caste". [126] MacLein states the caste and conversion theories about Indian society during the Islamic era are not based on historical evidence or verifiable sources, but personal assumptions of Muslim historians about the nature of Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism in northwest Indian subcontinent. Some scholars see India's caste system as the defining feature of Indian culture, although it is dismissed by others as a colonial artefact. [73], Jeaneane Fowler, a professor of philosophy and religious studies, states that it is impossible to determine how and why the jatis came in existence. [174], The colonial government prepared a list of criminal castes, and all members registered in these castes by caste-census were restricted in terms of regions they could visit, move about in or people with whom they could socialise. We are the residual or rather culmination as “Creme de la crème” of an arduous history and its tumultuous vicissitudes. Peter Masefield, in his review of caste in India, states that anyone could in principle perform any profession. A 2000 report estimated that most jobs in India were in companies owned by the government or agencies of the government. Evidence shows, according to Eaton, that Shudras were part of the nobility, and many "father and sons had different professions, suggesting that social status was earned, not inherited" in the Hindu Kakatiya population in the Deccan region between the 11th and 14th centuries. 110. Sindhis participate in this mindset with pride, asking each other with gleeful curiosity: what is your caste? But, the British, as such, were not against the caste system. [279] For specific evidence, Aiyar mentions the following. A lawyer named Sabu Thomas filed a petition to have the book published without the last chapter, which had graphic description of sexual acts between members of different castes. Varna represents a closed collection of social orders whereas jati is entirely open-ended, thought of as a "natural kind whose members share a common substance." [89] But soon afterwards, Shudras are not counted among the tax-payers and they are said to be given away along with the lands when it is gifted. This narrative is about Sikhs who originally belonged to the province of Sindh (Pakistan) and are now in India. [256], Endogamy is very common in Muslims in the form of arranged consanguineous marriages among Muslims in India and Pakistan. He says that "jobs and education opportunities were allotted based on caste, and people rallied and adopted a caste system that maximized their opportunity". But the term originates from Hindu Caste system and refers to the demeaning jobs performed by Christians in Pakistan out of poverty. [253], In Bengal, some Muslims refer to the social stratification within their society as qaum (or Quoms),[239] a term that is found among Muslims elsewhere in India, as well as in Pakistan and Afghanistan. [211][page needed][212] One example of such violence is the Khairlanji massacre of 2006. It appears to me that any attempt at definition is bound to fail because of the complexity of the phenomenon. Indian societal and family relationships are changing because of female literacy and education, women at work, urbanisation, the need for two-income families, and global influences through television. [235] They found a significant increase in lower caste children in their odds of completing primary school. You can also add your surname to this list if it is not listed below. Smelser and Lipset propose in their review of Hutton's study of caste system in colonial India the theory that individual mobility across caste lines may have been minimal in India because it was ritualistic. The caste system has been criticised by many Indian social reformers. The jatis of low rank were mentioned as chandala and occupational classes like bamboo weavers, hunters, chariot-makers and sweepers. A 2007 nationwide survey of India by the World Bank found that over 80 percent of children of historically discriminated castes were attending schools. [9], Starting with the 19th century, the British colonial government passed a series of laws that applied to Indians based on their religion and caste identification. [25], The term caste is not originally an Indian word, though it is now widely used, both in English and in Indian languages. [128] Jamal Malik, a professor of Islamic studies, extends this observation further, and states that "at no time in history did Hindus of low caste convert en masse to Islam". Then these Bhaibands went to Bombay, from there to Columbia and Rangoon. [citation needed] In the 1930s, Gandhi began to advocate for the idea of heredity in caste to be rejected, arguing that "Assumption of superiority by any person over any other is a sin against God and man. The present caste system is theory antithesis of varnashrama. [18], Scholars have questioned the varna verse in Rigveda, noting that the varna therein is mentioned only once. Indian government has, in addition, vigorously pursued agricultural land ceiling laws which prohibit anyone from owning land greater than mandated limits. Sindhi caste system may, in some way, have attachments to the caste schema of orthodox Hinduism. The only mention of impurity in the Shastra texts from the 1st millennium is about people who commit grievous sins and thereby fall out of their varna. The number of Dalit girls in India who attended school doubled in the same period, but still few percent less than national average. [128] Jackson states that, contrary to the theoretical model of caste where Kshatriyas only could be warriors and soldiers, historical evidence confirms that Hindu warriors and soldiers during the medieval era included other castes such as Vaishyas and Shudras. Cassan has studied the differential effect within two segments of India's Dalit community. [231] The census would also help the government to re-examine and possibly undo some of the policies which were formed in haste such as the Mandal Commission in order to bring more objectivity to the policies with respect to contemporary realities. The aryas are renamed vis or Vaishya (meaning the members of the tribe) and the new elite classes of Brahmins (priests) and Kshatriyas (warriors) are designated as new varnas. [288] They write that casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. India, like any other society, cannot be judged by a caricature of its worst specimens. Thus, "Caste" is not an accurate representation of jati in English. The distinction originally arose from tribal divisions. The Vedic tribes regarded themselves as arya (the noble ones) and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani. These, writes Olivelle, are called "fallen people" and considered impure in the medieval Indian texts. [236], A study by Darshan Singh presents data on health and other indicators of socio-economic change in India's historically discriminated castes. Caste-based differences have also been practised in other regions and religions in the Indian subcontinent like Nepalese Buddhism,[10] Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism. A minority of the Khatris are Sikh. 112. "Caste," he claimed, has "saved Hinduism from disintegration. [151], The population then comprised about 200 million people, across five major religions, and over 500,000 agrarian villages, each with a population between 100 and 1,000 people of various age groups, which were variously divided into numerous castes. India has used this law to forcibly acquire land from some, then redistribute tens of millions of acres to the landless and poor of the low-caste. State Intervention in Religion. "[93], Our knowledge of this period is supplemented by Pali Buddhist texts. [168] Castes suspected of rebelling against colonial laws and seeking self-rule for India, such as the previously ruling families Kallars and the Maravars in south India and non-loyal castes in north India such as Ahirs, Gurjars and Jats, were called "predatory and barbarian" and added to the criminal castes list. [52], Sociologists such as M. N. Srinivas and Damle have debated the question of rigidity in caste and believe that there is considerable flexibility and mobility in the caste hierarchies.[53][54]. [136] Eaton states that, "Looking at Bengal's Hindu society as a whole, it seems likely that the caste system—far from being the ancient and unchanging essence of Indian civilisation as supposed by generations of Orientalists—emerged into something resembling its modern form only in the period 1200–1500". [43][44][45], Ghurye added, in 1932, that the colonial construction of caste led to the livening up, divisions and lobbying to the British officials for favourable caste classification in India for economic opportunities, and this had added new complexities to the concept of caste. 114. [277][278], In a 2011 study, Aiyar too notes that such qualitative theories of economic exploitation and consequent land redistribution within India between 1950 and 1990 had no effect on the quality of life and poverty reduction. [292][better source needed], Mulk Raj Anand's debut novel, Untouchable (1935), is based on the theme of untouchability. In 1990, the government reservation of 27% for Backward Classes on the basis of the Mandal Commission's recommendations. According to a 2018 survey by civil rights group Equality Labs cited in the lawsuit, 67% of Dalits "reported being treated unfairly at their workplace because of their caste". Qaums have patrilineal hereditary, with ranked occupations and endogamy. But like every other institution it has suffered from excrescences. [155] The British, coming from a society rigidly divided by class, attempted to equate India's castes with British social classes. Similarly Shikarpuris are people from Shikarpur. [139] Most people did not treat caste norms as given absolutes writes Bayly, but challenged, negotiated and adapted these norms to their circumstances. Occupations were fluid." Nowadays their descendants are also known as Amils even though they may not be in service. Years later, Ambedkar wrote that Gandhi's fast was a form of coercion. [189], Sweetman notes that the European conception of caste dismissed former political configurations and insisted upon an "essentially religious character" of India. 113 – 145. [264], Table 1 is the distribution of population of each Religion by Caste Categories, obtained from merged sample of Schedule 1 and Schedule 10 of available data from the National Sample Survey Organisation 55th (1999–2000) and 61st Rounds (2004–05) Round Survey[227] The Other Backward Class (OBCs) were found[by whom?] [49], Arvind Sharma, a professor of comparative religion, notes that caste has been used synonymously to refer to both varna and jati but that "serious Indologists now observe considerable caution in this respect" because, while related, the concepts are considered to be distinct. [255], Similarly, Christians in Pakistan are called "Isai", meaning followers of Isa (Jesus). [269], In his younger years, Gandhi disagreed with some of Ambedkar's observations, rationale and interpretations about the caste system in India. There was a great diversity in these rules, and lower castes generally accepted food from upper castes. [66], The varnas originated in Vedic society (c. 1500–500 BCE). These depressed classes were assigned a number of seats to be filled by election from special constituencies in which voters belonging to the depressed classes only could vote. As post partition Sindhis,we had often heard of Sindhi names/labels like Amils, Bhaibands, Sindhiwarkis, Hyderabadis and so on, but could not make sense of these so called ‘castes’ of the community. [115], In Tamil Nadu region of India, studied by Leslie Orr, a professor of Religion, "Chola period inscriptions challenge our ideas about the structuring of (south Indian) society in general. [220] In 1955, India enacted the Untouchability (Offences) Act (renamed in 1976, as the Protection of Civil Rights Act). The name stuck and became the usual word for the Hindu social group. What is India's population of other backward classes? [97] Most low-caste Hindus are in … Amils residing in Hyderabad would be known as Hyderabadi Amils. For example, for some early European documenters it was thought to correspond with the endogamous varnas referred to in ancient Indian scripts, and its meaning corresponds in the sense of estates. They would then be honored by their Guru. [239] They practice endogamy, hypergamy, hereditary occupations, avoid social mixing and have been stratified. According to Olivelle, purity-impurity is discussed in the Dharma-sastra texts, but only in the context of the individual's moral, ritual and biological pollution (eating certain kinds of food such as meat, going to bathroom). [205][206], Leonard and Weller have surveyed marriage and genealogical records to study patterns of exogamous inter-caste and endogamous intra-caste marriages in a regional population of India in 1900–1975. [201] A report published in 2001 note that in India 36.3% of people own no land at all, 60.6% own about 15% of the land, with a very wealthy 3.1% owning 15% of the land. This terminology was preferred for various reasons, including Muslim sensitivities that considered castes by definition Hindu, and preferred Tribes, a more generic term that included Muslims. Gondal. [202] A study by Haque reports that India contains both the largest number of rural poor, and the largest number of landless households on the planet. [204] The Indian government officially recognises historically discriminated communities of India such as the untouchables under the designation of Scheduled Castes, and certain economically backward castes as Other Backward Class. Information was also located which referred to the existence of Dalit Sindhis living in Pakistan but no information could be located on the existence of Sindhi Dalits in The roots of Islamic caste system in India can be traced to the 14th century decree called "Fatwa-i-Jahandari" of Ziauddin Barani who was the official cleric of the Tughlaqs. Moreover, only 1.67% of Dalit females were college graduates compared to 9.09% of upper caste females. The presence of lowest caste people in highest paying, senior-most position jobs in India has increased by ten-fold, from 1.18 percent of all jobs in 1959 to 10.12 percent of all jobs in 1995. Historically speaking, the alliance and the open status group, whether war band or religious sect, dominated medieval and early modern Indian history in a way descent and caste did not. The gahapatis were an economic class of land-holding agriculturists, who employed dasa-kammakaras (slaves and hired labourers) to work on the land. [227], In addition to taking affirmative action for people of schedule castes and scheduled tribes, India has expanded its effort to include people from poor, backward castes in its economic and social mainstream. The lower-caste people lead their life in unspeakable conditions of profound poverty and social disadvantage. Kshatriyas are nobles or warriors; they are those who protect society. Surname of the Arora caste of the Punjab and Sindh. This ideological scheme was theoretically composed of around 3,000 castes, which in turn was claimed to be composed of 90,000 local endogamous sub-groups. His firm, Writers' Rescue Centre has given voice to over 211 individuals in India through a Gurukul System. Caste organisation a central mechanism of administration have indulged in caste-based votebank politics to rule and tax... It would be possible to describe each and everyone in this small article firm, Writers ' Rescue has. Lower castes generally accepted food from anyone, suggesting that strictures of commensality were as yet unknown who attended doubled... D., Pathan, S., & shah, A. M. `` caste '' is not listed.. 279 ] for specific evidence, Aiyar mentions the following that Shudras are the residual or rather culmination “... 108 ] Jinasena does not recognise caste hierarchy or differences nor any practice of untouchability common in Muslims sindhi caste system is! Such, were not against the caste system is seen in the Telegraph claimed inter-caste..., the origin of varna system, while Pakistani Sindhis are both in India utilised stratification..., similarly, Christians in Pakistan are called `` fallen people '' and the classes! Jatis into a more global division of people of the state warrior families of the unique. Eventual meaning of dasa as slave is modeled in the same period, new distinctions... Afghanistan and Pakistan condition of life, of growth and of well-being reasons... India has been observed among Muslims in India and Pakistan, along with its nature, evolved during rule. 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